Even though the fruits are commonly sold in grocery and produce stores year-round throughout the USA, the mango (Mangifera indica L.) is indigenous to the region between the borders of India and Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) and the Andaman Islands. It’s been cultivated in that portion of the planet since early times. At the fourth and fifth centuries B.C., Buddhist monks brought the mango to eastern Asia, including Malaysia. At the 10th century, the Persians attracted the mango to East Africa. The mango is known as the “fruit of the gods” and the “queen of the gods” and is utilized as a member of several south Asian celebrations.
Mangoes are most frequently grown in areas south of the Tropic of Cancer, because it is near the equator, where temperatures are always warm. This small swatch of land stretches 30 degrees north and south of the equator, an area that would be believed U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 and 11. Mango trees don’t tolerate cold temperatures, and temperatures as low as 40 degrees Fahrenheit may kill flower buds and newly renovated flowers, compromising fruit production. Individuals in cooler areas who wish to develop mango trees can develop one of those dwarf varieties in a container that may be moved inside.
Although mango trees create many flowers, not all of those flowers will produce fruit. Flowers may develop on various components of a tree at different times. Mango trees differ from other fruit trees because flowers don’t require bees for pollination. A host of different insects and fruit bats pollinate mango flowers. Mango trees are monoecious, a term that explains just how many flowers on one tree may be hermaphroditic, with both male and female reproductive organs. The typical pattern of flower production is that 75 percent of those flowers are capable of self-pollinating because the blossom has both male and female components, and 25 percent of those flowers are male. Flowering may occur any time between December and March, depending on the growing region and weather conditions.
Bloom to Fruit
The time that it takes for mango trees to generate mature, harvest-ready fruit in the time of flowering ranges from 100 to 150 days, depending on the cultivar, growing region and various weather factors. After flowers are pollinated, fruit starts to develop. Fruit varies in accordance with cultivar variety and growing place. Mango skin may be greenish-yellow or orange-red. Flavor also varies between acidic and sweet. Compared to the number of flowers a tree creates, the actual number of fruits that mature and develop to harvest is quite small. Most varieties bear fruit between May and September. Fruit production is heaviest during June and July.
Varieties for Containers
Because mango trees are best suited to the tropical climates of USDA plant hardiness zones 10 and 11, the only real way people living elsewhere can develop them is by opting for dwarf cultivars that are suited to container growth. The tree needs to be brought inside when temperatures get too cold or if there is too much rain. Two dwarf cultivars are suitable for growth in the home: “Irwin” and “Julie.” The two cultivars are overweight fruit producers whose fruits typically weigh 3/4 to 1 pound each. “Irwin” produces fruits that are pink, yellow and red, whereas “Julie” produces fruits that are pink and yellow. “Irwin” grows gradually; “Julie” rises very gradually. Both varieties produce fruit in June and July, after flowering in February or March, provided that suitable growing conditions are supplied.